What Overachieving Institutional Investors Get Right
No single practice or behavior explains success. Instead, top investors work across five dimensions to achieve excellence.
October 2015 | by Robert Harris
We recently examined the performance of thirty of the world’s largest institutional investors from 2004 to 2011. Conventional wisdom led us to expect that the firms with the highest rewards would also have taken the greatest risks. But it turns out that a number of “under-achievers” had good but highly volatile returns, while a group of “overachievers” managed to generate virtually the same returns with half the volatility. On average, overachievers returned 8.1 percent annually and lost 16.1 percent during the 2008–09 crisis. (We use losses in these years as an indicator of the amount of risk that investors take on.) Underachievers managed a slightly higher annual return, 8.7 percent, but suffered much greater crisis losses, 23.8 percent.
We found there is no single best-practice approach to “running money.” Instead, these top investors owe their performance to an ability to align their organization and management approach across five key areas: the mandate, the governance model, the investment philosophy, the investment strategy and processes, and talent management. These are the core pillars supporting successful institutional-investing platforms that create outsize value over time. Institutional investors that take a holistic approach to these pillars create a positive climate for strong investment management that is aligned with their missions.
The choices each institutional investor faces with these pillars will be determined by its stakeholders, priorities, and operating environment. Yet all investors can benefit from a careful, disciplined analysis of their operating model along each of the five pillars. This type of analysis enables investors to create road maps for the evolution of their institutions in alignment with their visions. Here, we briefly touch on the critical practices for each pillar.
The investment mandate sets the direction for the entire institution. Yet, all too often, the mandate does not receive sufficient attention until serious violations occur, such as excessively risky investments or significant conflicts of interest. The best institutional investors ensure their mandates are clear and concise and guide everything from investments to performance management and governance. Typically, these mandates define the institution’s overall purpose, and they provide high-level guidance on how to balance risk and return.
The Governance Model
Like the mandate, governance is a function that is rarely discussed when it is working well, but it can drag performance down when issues arise. For institutional investors, effective governance can be particularly challenging because of a number of complicated factors, especially the potentially conflicting goals of different stakeholders—for example, in jointly sponsored pension plans with government and union board members.
The Investment Philosophy
An investment philosophy guides the development of a tactical investment strategy. The philosophy should be closely tied to the mandate and reflect the institution’s core beliefs about the markets. For example, a pension plan may establish the minimization of risk and a focus on cash generation as philosophical principles. Well-constructed philosophies typically share five elements: a statement of market beliefs, a similar framing of asset-class beliefs, a fund-management style, a risk appetite, and a position on diversification.
The Investment Strategy and Processes
Leading institutional investors ensure their investment strategies and processes flow naturally from their philosophies. The strategy, often framed as an investment policy, influences the asset allocation, outlines a specific strategy for each asset class (for instance, setting benchmarks for returns and specifying internal or external management), and defines the support organizations’ structures, all of which are tightly aligned since they are highly interdependent.
Talent is at the core of any high-performing organization—and that is especially true for institutional investors. Senior leaders at world-class investment institutions spend a disproportionate amount of time and effort on recruiting, developing, and retaining talent. Underlying all world-class talent-management systems is a set of unique benefits that accrue to the people in the organization. The most successful public pensions and sovereign funds, for example, base their value propositions to employees on the higher purpose of furthering a social good (such as helping pensioners) or on a broader national objective (such as increasing national economic resilience).